Since there is no happiness in samsara, no eternity, no meaning, and no goals worthy of nostalgia and pursuit, then try to get liberation from samsara. How to get free? First of all, we must understand the causes and conditions of reincarnation, just like to cure a disease, we must first find the source of the disease. The cause of reincarnation is the essence of suffering in the collection and destruction of the Tao.
Xianzong believes that the root of reincarnation is ignorance, and ignorance causes twelve dependent origins.
Tantra believes that when the phenomena of reincarnation and nirvana, Buddha and sentient beings, purity and impurity do not exist, there is no celestial body in the universe, but a void. Only the essence of our heart is the only eternal existence. This It's the original face. The third turning of the wheel is called Buddha-nature, Tathagata.
Then, in the Buddha’s nature of the Tathagata, the first and most subtle thoughts were produced. The subtle thoughts vibrated and shook, resulting in the second, third, etc. thoughts and various kinds of light, just like we are dying. After that, when I was in the bardo body, I first saw the same light. At this time a kind of consciousness has been formed, the consciousness is attached to these lights, and some lights are regarded as self, and some lights are regarded as the external world. This kind of confusion or ignorance forms the eight consciousnesses and the six reincarnations. If the first thought does not vibrate and is peaceful and safe, then the second and third thoughts will not arise. Even if you have thoughts, if you are very calm, there will not be all kinds of substances, worlds, sentient beings, and the six realms of reincarnation. But in fact, at the same time that the first thought arises from the Tathagata, the second thought already exists and already has its vibration, so that the world is slowly formed.
When a large world that can be seen by the naked eye and touched by the hands is formed, we can neither say that the world is purely material, nor can we say that the world is entirely spiritual, which contains both spiritual and material components. From another deeper point of view, there is neither material nor spirit. It is just an illusion. It’s just that this illusion sometimes resembles a substance, so it can be called a substance for the time being; sometimes it resembles a spirit, so it can be called a spirit for the time being. After all, it is an illusion.
From the current scientific point of view, the world is the vibration of matter or string, but we believe that the most basic matter can never exist. At the end of the material vibration, it must be attributed to the spiritual vibration. Where did the world come from? Born from inner vibration. From the perspective of tantra, we go through these processes every day. Every moment, when we enter deep sleep every day, we will enter the source of the world. The same is true at death, but these processes are more clearly manifested at death. Enlightened practitioners and those who practice the tantric regular energy and clear point practice are also going through these processes every time they enter the state of meditation, so these are not far away.
This is the most primitive situation, and the secret method, especially in Dzogchen, is very clear. In the third turn of the Falun, I probably said this, but I didn't say it very clearly. In the first Zhuan Falun and the second Zhuan Falun, the true source of reincarnation is never mentioned, only the twelve dependent origins.
But what is mainly introduced here is the viewpoint of Xianzong.
First of all, there are two factors that make up the truth-troubles and karma. The Buddha tells us that the truth of suffering is the cause of the truth of suffering, and the truth of suffering is the result of the truth of suffering. As for how the truth of suffering arises from the truth of the collection, it is not superficial content, nor is it a general hidden content. Therefore, we cannot use current evidence, nor can we use comparative reasoning to prove its accuracy. It can only be proved by the method described in "Shi Liang Lun".
For example, for Newton’s universal gravitation in modern science, the concept of absolute space-time, Einstein’s theory of relativity, Bohr et al.’s quantum mechanics, and some esoteric theories in recent superstring theory, we have no way to use current evidence. There is no way to prove its accuracy with comparative reasoning, but we still accept it. This is not our own research, but a few top scientists have come to a conclusion through experimental research. Why did everyone believe it? This is because of the public's trust in scientists. For another example, although we don't know the working principles of electrical appliances, airplanes, etc., we can completely trust the capabilities of science and technology. We don't need to study ourselves, and we don't have the ability to research and explore. Since we can believe and accept the research results of scientists in this way, we should also believe and accept the wisdom conclusions of Buddha, otherwise, believing in science has become a kind of superstition.
Everyone knows that scientists can also make mistakes. Newton’s concept of absolute space-time has been believed by everyone for two hundred years, but it was finally rejected by Einstein’s theory of relativity. Every time a scientific instrument is updated, it is a negation and improvement of the original technology. Scientists don't always make mistakes, and instruments are not always correct, but we believe in science and instruments so much. Why don't we believe in the wisdom of Buddha? If what the Buddha said is incorrect, we can use persuasive evidence to deny and overthrow it. But so far, no one has overturned the Buddha's conclusion. You know, not everything we believe in is discovered by ourselves, seen with our own eyes, or participated in research. Similarly, although cause and effect are not visible to all of us, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas can discover that the truth of suffering is produced by the truth.
In what way did Buddhas and Bodhisattvas discover them? The Buddha was discovered not by reasoning or measuring with instruments, but by vast magical powers or wisdom.
Supernatural powers not only possess the Buddha, but also many eminent monks and great virtues. The reason why many masters can foresee what happened afterwards a long time ago and record them clearly is not through reasoning, hexagrams, or fortune-telling, but relying on it. The consciousness function of perceiving the past and foreseeing the future, that is, supernatural powers come to see.
It is said in the Buddhist scriptures that when Buddha Shakyamuni was alive, some people, mainly Devadatta, doubted the magical powers of the Buddha, thinking that the Buddha would not have magical powers and that the Buddha would not be omniscient. In order to investigate whether the Buddha possesses magical powers, Devadado collected various flowers and trees on the mountains in various places, burned them to ashes, and put them in small pockets. The bags contained papers for identifying place names and species. Then the Buddha was not allowed to read the note, but he had to identify the source of each bag of ashes. As a result, the Buddha made no mistake.
On another occasion, Devadado took a little grain from every household in a city in India, put them in small pockets, and wrote the family’s name in the pockets, and then asked the Buddha to recognize it, and the Buddha also said one by one. It came out, and it was completely consistent with the narrative of the note.
In fact, not only do Buddhas have such supernatural powers, but generally people who practice better can also have such supernatural powers.
Closer to home, since karma and defilement form a set of truths, then what is defilement?
Everyone has various emotions every day, and most of these emotions are troubles.
There are many definitions and classifications of defilements in the Buddhist Theravada's "Kushi" and Mahayana's "Mahayana Abhidhamma". I think it is necessary for you to learn more in the future. A part of "Mahayana Abhidhamma" and "Kusa" is a super-psychology exclusive to Buddhism. Although it has similarities with modern western psychology, it completely surpasses western psychology. "Mahayana Abhidhamma" talks about 51 common mental states or psychological phenomena, including good, evil, and unremembered emotions. Twenty-six types of defilements, including six types of fundamental defilements, and twenty types of random defilements. When the root defilements arise, the defilements that follow the root defilements are called follow-up defilements.
When these twenty-six kinds of emotions are produced, everyone will be immediately unhappy, uncomfortable, upset, painful and uneasy, so it is called trouble. Although there is no obvious pain when some defilements arise, they will cause a lot of suffering, or cause us to create karma and sin, so they are also called defilements. When we have these troubles in our hearts, we must immediately recognize them, and then take measures to deal with, control, and get rid of these troubles.
The six fundamental worries are greed, hatred, ignorance, slowness, doubt, and seeing. It can be divided into see trouble and non-see trouble. Seeing trouble is trouble of opinion. That is, personal view, side view, wrong view, view and view, and forbidden view. Five kinds of defilements plus five types of non-seeing defilements, this is the ten fundamental defilements. If the five types of defilements are summarized as one, and the five types of non-see defilements are added, there are six fundamental defilements. Non-seeing troubles are not opinions, but they are troubles in themselves. Ten basic defilements, plus twenty additional defilements, so there are thirty types of defilements.
(1) Fundamental troubles
The first of the six fundamental troubles is ignorance, that is, stupidity and ignorance. If you don’t understand cause and effect, you don’t understand the cycle of life, you don’t understand the Four Noble Truths, you don’t know anything about life, the world, and the essence of your heart. They are all ignorance, which is also called ignorance. Ignorance is the source and foundation of all troubles. All troubles are inseparable from ignorance, and they all contain ignorance. Not only all the troubles, but also the root of the entire cycle is ignorant. Ignorance will produce troubles, and when there are troubles, karma will be created. After karma is created, the phenomenon of bad interest will appear, and reincarnation will arise because of this. Therefore, the first branch of the twelve dependent origins is ignorance.
Although all beings are unwilling to accept pain, all beings are inseparable from pain. This is due to ignorance. Because of ignorance, there is a problem with the pursuit method, so it will go the opposite way, and it will be painful to seek happiness. Therefore, the first driving force of reincarnation is ignorance and ignorance. Because of ignorance, ego-attachment arises. With ego-attachment, there is ego-attachment. In this way, greed, aversion, arrogance, etc., arise as the times require.
How to break ignorance? Only in Buddhism can there be a way to completely break ignorance.
Ignorance is not like the feeling of being confused and ignorant after falling asleep. Sometimes it appears to be very clever. For example, the production of waste oil and tainted milk powder can only be done at the level of graduate students or doctoral students. But the essence of these behaviors is ignorance and ignorance.
We should not be self-righteous, be clever everywhere, use high-tech improper means to make money and deceive people. The end of this is absolutely self-reliant.
In "The Theory of Ju She", ignorance is a psychological phenomenon opposed to wisdom. Originally all dharma is emptiness, ignorance not only does not understand emptiness, but also stubbornly believes that everything will not be emptiness, but reality. Although the source of ignorance is a very pure Tathagata, behind ignorance, it is the product of being polluted by ignorance.
If you want to get rid of samsara and get liberation, you must overcome ignorance. To learn Buddhism is to learn wisdom, not to burn incense, kowtow, or worship Buddha. Although burning incense, kowtow, and worshiping Buddha are good things and a good way to accumulate resources, the core value of learning Buddhism is not in burning incense and worshiping Buddha, but in hearing and thinking. Wisdom can only be produced through hearing, thinking and cultivating. Only with wisdom can we overthrow ignorance and overthrow the first driving force of reincarnation.
The second of the six fundamental troubles is greed.
Greed for the three realms-desire, materiality, and non-material realms, or greed for reincarnation, is called greed . Because of greed, greed for money, greed for fame and gain, greed for status, etc., when there is no money, it is very painful, because you can't satisfy yourself; when you have money, you will not be happy because greed can expand infinitely. "Look to the money" is a very popular word now. Why look to the money? Because we are greedy. If you don't control greed, you will never be able to satisfy it, it will cause a lot of unhappiness, and you will never be happy.
Because of greed, the living environment and heart of mankind have been severely polluted and destroyed. We should reduce greed and live a low-greed, low-carbon life.
In the TV series "Family Property", it tells the story of brothers and sisters racking their brains to fight for family property after the death of their father. To the ruthless destruction of greed. Including the unstoppable gutter oil, clenbuterol, corruption, and the comparison of luxury goods, which is not because of greed? Since greed has such great power and harm, we must control it and finally eliminate it completely.
Aversion and hatred are what we usually call anger. When there is aversion, there is war. It can be as small as the competition between people, as large as the war between countries, the First World War, the Second World War, and various local wars, all because of anger. Hate. The root cause of all fighting and killing in human history is anger. "The Theory of Jushes" talks about the relationship between greed, hatred, and ignorance. Sometimes greed can lead to anger, while greed is less likely to be caused by greed. Wanting to snatch other people's things, wanting to provoke a war, is the hatred caused by greed. If you do not resolve your anger, you will not be able to live a peaceful and harmonious life.
Once you find the signs of anger, you must immediately kill it in the bud, and you must not let it continue to develop. Otherwise, it will definitely destroy our future and let us not have a good life, only to fall into hell, hungry ghosts, and bystanders.
The three poisons of greed, anger, ignorance and ignorance are more terrifying than any drugs in the world. It is very clear in "Buddha Action": "When the troubles such as greed are born, it is the practice of Buddha to eradicate them." Every time the three poisonous troubles arise, we must try to control them. If it is allowed to develop, even if it does not commit a crime, it will commit evil deeds and will surely experience evil retribution in the future. Of course, the troubles of ignorance in the three poisons cannot be solved at once. But anger and greed should be effectively controlled.
On the basis of ego attachment, arrogance arises. For modern people, arrogance is a very serious problem. Many senior intellectuals, gold-collar workers or white-collar workers are very arrogant. Once there is arrogance, there will be a lack of politeness, let alone respectfulness. Unwilling to learn from anyone, thinking that only oneself is the greatest. Among classmates, colleagues or friends, I am the boss. No one can surpass me, they are not as good as me, I am the most powerful, this mentality is called "slow".
Once you have a slow heart, you will hang in the air all day long, you will never calm down to think about problems, and you will not be able to study Buddhism well.
Many people say: I am very good at work and family, why should I study Buddhism? In fact, behind this sentence, there is a mentality of ignorance and arrogance. Because you don’t understand the Four Noble Truths, you don’t know the nature of the world, and you think it’s great to have money, status, health, and fame. That’s why you don’t know the heights of the world. This is a manifestation of serious ignorance. At the same time, thinking that he is already very good, Buddha Shakyamuni is not as good as himself, and no one has anything worth learning and learning from. This is a typical arrogance. The result of arrogance is depravity. He thinks that he has already stood at the peak, and he does not need to be positive anymore. Depravity is an inevitable trend.
The Buddhist scriptures also say that people with arrogance can't learn anything, and they won't produce any merits in their hearts-including progress in practice, progress in learning, progress in life, etc., so it is very scary. No matter how rich, powerful, or famous you are, it is just a manifestation of the maturity of the rewards accumulated in the past. Once the rewards are exhausted, everything will leave. All glories that have leaks are short-lived, impermanent, and unreliable, and there must be no arrogance.
It is stated in the "Kishae Theory": In the originally very peaceful meditation, once a thought comes up, I have this kind of meditation skills, which other people don't have. Then all subsequent meditations become contaminated meditations, and it is useless to sit for a long time.
There is a saying in Tibetan Buddhism: The best trick is to point out mistakes, and the best guru is to criticize those who make mistakes. Because only criticism can let us see our mistakes, flaws and shortcomings, and control our arrogance. If there is no criticism, and often praised by others, then it will be over.
When we first went to the academy before, because we were ignorant, and we had just made a little progress in our studies, it was easy to be proud. Karmapa Ruyibao often attacked us in various ways. Until later, no matter how much progress was made in learning, he didn't dare to be proud anymore, because the previous attack played a very good role, so criticism is really the best. The trick. Facing standard students, the master is very rude, just like scolding people every day, because they are sure that they know that the disciples will not be upset and will not stay away from now on, and can tune into them without hesitation.
But critics must be careful not to use this method with any object. When Master Marpa left in Mirajpa, Zeng said to Mirajpa earnestly: "You can't use the way I treat you when you teach students in the future. Students like you are very rare; A master like me is also very rare. Don’t imitate my method."
Only relatively standard students can accept criticism, otherwise it will have a negative effect. The disciple who is criticized may feel that the master despises himself or bullies himself because he has no money or other reasons, etc. In front of non-standard students, you must speak carefully, softly and politely. Speak exactly according to what the Buddha said, and nothing can be wrong. After speaking, they don't add anything, stand up and leave. Many masters treat their disciples who are not mature enough because they are afraid of these disciples.
Ordinary people value, persevere, and spoil themselves very much, so they are often not easy to find their own problems, and it is difficult to improve themselves through self-remind. Relying on the reminders of our masters and Vajra practitioners, we can find and correct our problems in time, which will definitely help our practice.
In addition, it is also mentioned in the Xianzong scriptures that the criticism of the master is a way to get rid of the unfavorable condition. Even if you dream that your master is not happy to scold yourself, you can cleanse your sins and eliminate disasters.
Since suspicion is a trouble, is it not allowed to have doubt at all? It's not like this. When I first heard about it, it is normal to have doubts, doubts, and doubts about the Four Noble Truths of Suffering, Concentration, Extinction, and Tao, and emptiness, cause and effect, and the Three Jewels. These are all normal and should be encouraged. With these questions, we will look for answers and finally solve the problems.
But when the doubts have been resolved through hearing and thinking, and when it has entered the stage of practice, if there are still many doubts, there is no way to practice. For example, when cultivating externally and practicing reincarnation pain, another thought came up: Does hell exist or not? Then there is no way to fix it. At this time, doubts become troubles and at the same time are obstacles to practice.
It's like arriving at a fork in the road, and you don't know whether you want to go to the left or the right. At this time, it is necessary to have doubts. If you walk without doubt, you may go the wrong way. After determining the direction by observing road signs, asking passers-by, or querying the map, you can go forward bravely, no more doubts and no hesitation. If you have not tried to find out the route, you will not be able to walk at all and you can only stay at the intersection. At this time, your doubts become an obstacle.
It can be seen that the elimination of suspicion here does not conflict with the notion that Western science strongly advocates not to be credulous and to doubt everything. The suspicion advocated by science is not suspicion for the sake of doubt, but for the ultimate solution of the problem. There is nothing wrong with doubt itself. The main reason lies in when there can be doubt and when there can be no doubt. When you hear and think, you can have doubts; when you practice, you can't have doubts. The purpose of hearing and thinking is to cut off doubt when practicing.
The above five worries are called non-see worries. They are not opinions, but troubles based on opinions, so they are called non-seeing troubles.
Seeing defilements is divided into five kinds of bad views-personal view, side view, wrong view, view and view, and forbidden view.
1. See you
The first of the evil views is called body view, that is, ego and ego grasping. It is called self-viewing because of the ego-attachment that arises to one's own body. The body here does not only refer to the physical body, but includes the five aggregates. Ego-clinging arises to the five aggregates. After having ego-clinging, it produces ego-clinging to other things outside of the body. This is also the ego-clinging of human beings and the ego-clinging of Dharma-ego in Madhyamaka.
Personal experience is the root of all troubles. Although Buddhism sometimes says that ignorance is the root of reincarnation, sometimes it says that ego is the root of reincarnation, and sometimes it says that greed is the root of rebirth, they are all the same. The most important thing is ignorance. Ego and ignorance are the main factors, and greed is the secondary factor. As long as there is ignorance, there will be ego; with ego, there will be greed. These three factors are the root of reincarnation.
At the beginning of reincarnation, what first produces is not matter, but ignorance, and then ego attachment; because of ego attachment, there is ego attachment; after ignorance and ego attachment are produced, other defilements will arise as the times require . Only by severing ego and ignorance can liberation be obtained.
When ignorance is eliminated, the truth of the universe and life will be realized, and there will be no more illusions and illusions. The troubles caused by these illusions will also lose their foundation, and liberation will naturally occur. This is the liberation method and path that the Buddha pointed out to us, and we must do our best to pursue wisdom. Only wisdom can solve all problems. The five levels of generosity and precepts mentioned in the first six articles of "The Theory of Enlightenment" are all for wisdom. It is wisdom that can get rid of the troubles of ignorance. Ignorance and wisdom are opposites that cannot coexist. To overthrow ignorance, in addition to wisdom, other things such as compassion, renunciation, faith in causal reincarnation, etc., cannot play the most critical role. These are the same as ignorance. Ego is not contradictory. On the basis of ignorance and ego, one can also believe in cause and effect, reincarnation, and cultivate compassion. However, the generation of selfless wisdom of enlightened emptiness requires the foundation of bodhicitta and renunciation. Therefore, cultivation and practice are very important.
2. See you
Persistent views are derived on the basis of personal views. Because of the existence of the real me, I am attached to the boundless and boundless, or constant and broken, that is, I believe that the “I” will remain eternal or completely perish after death. They are two kinds of attachments. See. From the perspective of Buddhism, the materialistic viewpoint is a judgment.
There are three types of materialism: dialectical materialism, mechanical materialism and vulgar materialism. Before Shakyamuni Buddha turned the wheel of the Falun, there was ancient vulgar materialism. Vulgar materialism insists on judgments. Except for the things that the five sense organs can perceive, they don’t recognize the more hidden things, such as past lives and future lives, and the law of cause and effect. This kind of view is called judging.
Most religious views in ancient India are common. Acknowledging a permanent and immortal self, thinking that there is an eternal god dominating the world, and that God is immortal. This is common. As long as you believe in the gods, cut off evil and cultivate good, you will surely have good results, and it is possible to reincarnate and enjoy happiness. Common and prejudiced views add up, and they are called bianzhijian.
In the side view, the judgment is more terrifying than the common one. The "Four Hundred Theory of Madhyamaka" says: "Do not harm the living beings and the heavens, observe the sky and realize Nirvana." Without harming other beings, you can be reincarnated into the goodness of the humans and the heavens. Judging is terrible, thinking that after a person dies, there is nothing and no cause and effect, so as long as they are not discovered by others, they dare to do anything. Ethics is just a custom. If you don’t want to abide by it, you can be irresponsible and do whatever you want. Retribution and the afterlife will not exist. In this way, all ethics, morality, and causal concepts will be destroyed, and you will also suffer in the afterlife. Ruthless punishment.
3. Wrong opinions
I don’t know whether reincarnation and cause and effect exist, and it’s not called evil views. Only the opinion that the law of cause and effect and the cycle of life are absolutely impossible is called wrong view. Not all evil views have reached the point of evil. Only part of it is wrong. Why is it "evil"? Because it slanders the laws of nature and is the source of all evil. This kind of view is very terrible. Anyone who has this kind of view will become an evil, greedy, and fierce person who kills, steals, commits adultery, and commits all evil, so it is called evil view.
The fourth and fifth kinds of evil views discussed below are both called seeing. Because these opinions contain the element of clinging, that is, not giving up. For example, do not give up seeing and quit, thinking that these opinions and quitting are very correct, so it is called seeing. Access is divided into two types, access and refusal to access.
4. See you
The word "see" in front of "see and see" represents all wrong views . Seeing and seeing is not only insisting on common and inferior opinions, but also thinking that these opinions are the best and the most correct, stubbornly clinging to them, clinging to them, and never letting go. Such erroneous views are called seeing and seeing.
For example, some elderly people not only do not study Buddhism, but also believe that reincarnation and cause and effect absolutely do not exist. Only their own worldview and life outlook are the only correct views. This is called seeing and seeing.
Because insights play a pivotal role in guiding a person's life and behavior, if you don't give up wrong insights, it will definitely lead to wrong consequences, so seeing and seeing is listed as the fundamental trouble.
5. Forbidden to see
The prohibition of seeing is the wrong view of the path of liberation, which is the wrong way to believe that the various precepts and prohibitions of physical abuse advocated by the Wai Dao are. Precepts and prohibitions refer to precepts and prohibitions. Buddhism has precepts forbidding killing, theft and adultery, etc. There are also various precepts in the outside world. For example, Buddhism believes that killing is the most serious of all sins, and killing is not allowed under any circumstances. However, some ancient religions believe that killing cows, horses, sheep, and even women and children to sacrifice to gods can be liberated; there are also some outsiders in India who believe that if the trident is passed through the body, liberation can be obtained; or they cannot rely on it. You can get relief from extreme physical abuse such as wearing clothes and skipping meals. But if there is no enlightenment of emptiness, the inner troubles are not resolved, just torturing one's own body, it is impossible to get rid of it. The body in this life is destroyed, and another body will be produced. Killing other lives not only cannot be a cause of liberation, but will fall into evil interests. These erroneous views of the outside world are all called forbidden to see.
The above five kinds of views are collectively called bad views. These are all sufferings of seeing, and they are one of the six fundamental problems. If the evil views are counted as five kinds of defilements, they add up to ten fundamental defilements.
How to deal with the ten fundamental troubles? The total counteracting power is to realize the emptiness of enlightenment. After the realization of emptiness, all the worries can be solved, and they can be overthrown. For branch countermeasures, you can use the concepts of impermanence and suffering to control greed; compassion to control hatred; after studying the Abhidhamma, after analyzing the five aggregates, twelve places, and eighteen realms, Knowing that oneself is not a whole, but a complex of the five aggregates, the twelve elements, and the eighteen realms. It belongs to the law of the increase of individual thoughts and peace. It's like treating a thing made up of many parts as a car, where the parts exist relatively objectively, and the car is added to Anritsu. Similarly, "I" does not actually exist. Through hearing, thinking and cultivating, one can increase wisdom and eventually overthrow ignorance.
We must understand that the purpose of studying Buddhism is to get rid of worries. The success of studying Buddhism depends on the ability to deal with defilements. If you have been studying Buddhism for many years, you are also practicing while listening to thinking, but because your practice is not in place, greed, hatred, ignorance, slowness, and suspicion have not diminished at all. It's exactly the same in Buddhism, so our learning of Buddhism is not only not a success, but it can also be regarded as a failure. Although it is also meaningful to hear, think, cultivate, and break evil and do good, and our concepts and lifestyles will definitely make some progress, these are not the core issues, and they are of little significance. Therefore, we still have to look back and see what the results of our practice are.
Although some people have been studying and thinking about it, they haven't practiced it. They just study Buddhism as a kind of culture and philosophy, which is no different from the professors in the school. Many university professors are also studying Buddhism, but most people do not believe in Buddhism, let alone practice and liberation. When they encounter problems, they will not use the wisdom of Buddhism to cure them. Talking on paper in theory cannot solve key problems.
(2) Follow the troubles
Next, I will introduce twenty kinds of troubles. Sui defilements can also be said to be part of the fundamental defilements, because they follow the previous basic defilements, so they are called Sui defilements.
Wrath is anger. The difference between anger and hatred is that: hatred is the totality of the emotion of anger. There is no difference in size. As long as it does not develop to the extent of beating or swearing, it belongs to hatred. And anger is a general anger at first, and then it will start to beat people. This is no longer a negative emotion, but a destructive emotion. Wrath is one of the most serious of the 20 kinds of troubles, especially from the perspective of Mahayana Buddhism, this kind of trouble is even more serious.
Especially for people who are practicing Tantra, if there is resentment among Vajra Daoists, they will be guilty of tantric precepts when they quarrel or fight. This is a very terrible sin. We must grasp our emotions, and we must not let our hatred develop to the stage of anger. If we don’t give up and develop, it will turn into hatred.
Hate is not regretting or apologizing after beating someone, and staying in a state of anger for a month, two months, one year, or two years. This mentality is called hate. If you hit someone out of anger, but you regret it immediately, apologize and confess to each other, the anger does not develop into hatred.
As Buddhists, first of all, we should not have anger; if there is anger, we must not develop into anger; if anger arises, we should not expand the situation to hate; if the hatred continues, there is no way to repent. Those who hold this mentality are not qualified to call themselves Mahayana Buddhists, let alone practitioners. If there is a conflict between Vajra Daoists, it is best to apologize to each other on the same day; even if you cannot apologize on the same day, it is best not to exceed 24 hours; if 24 hours have passed, it is best not to live a month, otherwise the sin will become more and more serious. serious.
Perseverance in anger is called hatred; when anger develops to the point of beating people, it is anger; when it develops to the point of swearing or swearing, it is called annoyance. Their essence is aversion. Anger, hatred, and annoyance are all different stages of anger.
Once you have these bad emotions, your body will not only secrete a lot of toxins, which are harmful to your physical and mental health, you and others will feel unhappy and unhappy, but you will also cause serious sin karma, which seriously violates the core ideas of Mahayana Buddhism. When it comes to a position that is completely opposed to compassion, we must find ways to control, cure, and reduce these worries. Of course, if you want to get rid of it completely, you need to realize it after enlightenment.
We can't think that learning Buddhism means more listening and thinking. As long as you finish the five plus exercises, you will be complete. If the troubles have not been reduced, perhaps our method of learning Buddhism has been completely wrong.
The so-called harm is to hurt sentient beings. The scope of harm is a bit wide, and the mentality of hitting, killing, stealing, etc. with hatred is all harm. Although harm is also anger, but anger is not necessarily harm. For example, although you are very angry, but you don't want to kill sentient beings, etc., it is not harm. When anger develops to a serious level, it may become harmful. Harm is very dangerous, and if you don't pay attention, you will cause a lot of bad karma.
Although many people are entitled to have money and have everything they need, they are still unhappy in the end. The main reason is jealousy. The object of jealousy is the advantage or superiority of other people , such as being rich, powerful, famous, practicing well, being more diligent, and so on. Seeing that others are better than oneself, there are generally two kinds of emotions: one is rejoicing, as happy as you are good, this mentality is quite meritorious; the other is jealous and unhappy, why he is better than me ? How can he surpass me? Along with unhappiness, other negative emotions will breed, such as hatred, complaints, curses, and so on.
In order to reduce jealousy, you should watch less TV and watch advertisements less often. Because TV commercials are full of rich people's lifestyles, we are prone to jealousy and comparison. At the same time, because they are stimulated, they will increase their greed, and in serious cases, they will even take risks for this-cheating, stealing, robbery, trying all means to make money, and finally on the road of crime. If you want to be happy, don't visit your neighbor's house to avoid jealousy, and learn to be content with the status quo.
People who are jealous will never be happy, because the essence of jealousy is unhappy and unhappy. To be jealous of others for practicing well is to be jealous of the Dhamma; to be jealous of others who are richer than oneself, to drive better cars than oneself, to live in a house wider than one's own, to wear clothes more expensive than one's own, to wear a watch that is higher than one's own, etc. Waiting, is jealous of the world law. How hard it is to live like this!
Because of jealousy, some people who are savage by nature will use all kinds of improper means to destroy the happiness of others. Jealousy not only affects our lives, but also hinders our liberation. There are many examples in ancient and modern China and abroad, which prove the danger of jealousy.
Human emotions can be cultivated and trained. Since we want to pursue happiness, we must try our best to control those emotions that will bring us misfortune. Eliminating jealousy and learning to rejoice are all sources of happiness. In addition, the premise of cultivating the boundless happiness in the four boundless hearts is to find a happy and healthy person. If there is no such person, how can we cultivate boundless happiness in the four boundless hearts? For practitioners, through long-term practice of rejoicing and unmeasurable joy training, they can slowly develop a habit. Not only will they not be jealous of seeing others better than themselves, but they will rejoice and rejoice sincerely. This is what a practitioner’s Demeanor.
When I break the precepts, commit a crime, or do some immoral things, I am afraid that telling things will affect my income, reputation, make myself unable to lift my head in front of others, etc., and try my best to hide and cover myself. His fault is called "recovery". "Overturning" is also a very serious trouble. Once there is "overturning", you can never repent, and you will never have the opportunity to purify your sin karma. The Buddhist scriptures say that opening one's own mistakes and faults and hiding others' faults and shortcomings can reduce one's sin karma. If you do the opposite, you can imagine the results.
Because of coveting the respect and support of others, even if I don’t have any merit, I pretend that I am a living Buddha. He has been reincarnated for dozens or hundreds of generations. What did Sakyamuni Buddha look like when he lived in this world? What is the time, etc., or bragging that you have supernatural powers, etc., such behavior is called "诳".
Vanity, which is very common among modern people, is also similar to this kind of mentality. There is no inner thing, but it is proud of wearing brand-name clothes and carrying brand-name bags. Humiliation is a serious trouble. It is very close to lying and deceiving. We must understand that anyone who loves to boast about his greatness must be highly suspicious and never believe it lightly. Many people now like to write biographies for themselves and promote themselves through various means. If you publicize yourself for the sake of spreading the Dharma and benefiting your life, then there is no problem, at least the starting point is a kind of goodwill; but if the purpose of publicity is for fame and fortune, it is ridiculous.
Some people in the world like to exaggerate, and they have only done one hundred yuan of good deeds, but they have to say it is one thousand yuan or ten thousand yuan. This is also called slander. If you are often led by the nose by "humiliation", your heart will become very impetuous, and you will do everything for your own benefit. As a result, the merits of doing good deeds will be destroyed.
It is an inescapable obligation for Mahayana pedestrians to benefit all living beings, and there is nothing great. This is the work of a bodhisattva. It is a matter of course to pay for all living beings. You should not brag about yourself and make publicity everywhere.
8, no shame
For example, when you are arguing with others, you can realize that you are a practitioner of Mahayana Buddhism and should not treat sentient beings in this way. It is shameful to do such a thing, so you should stop immediately. This is shameful. From another perspective, if you take the initiative to feel ashamed and stop the bad behavior, it is called being ashamed. The opposite of shame is called Wu Sha.
For example, when two people fight, they do not consider the teachings of Buddhism, but because of the ethics and morals of the world, they realize that they should not do it, and then stop the fight, which is called guilty. In addition, I feel ashamed because of others, for example, because I am a disciple, or because I came from a certain school, my teacher is a certain professor, etc., and realize that I should not be a teacher, school, etc. The shame of the teacher finally gave up his evil deeds, which is also called being ashamed. On the contrary, it is worthy.
People who are ashamed or ashamed are more or less restrained and will pay attention to their words and deeds. Shamelessness and shamelessness are the root of all sins. Just imagine, people who don’t care about anything without any constraints or scruples will become more and more barbaric, and eventually they can do anything. Many people now hold this mentality, because they do not learn Buddhism or traditional culture, which leads to an infinite decline in the bottom line of ethics and morality. This is very terrible. Of course, the requirement of Buddhism is not to fall on both sides. Those who are not helpful to ourselves and not beneficial to sentient beings, such as ascetic monks, do not have to accept constraints, but we must not give up if we have necessary constraints.
If you do not accept the persuasion of others but conceal your own sins and demerits, and do not disclose or reveal your sins, it is considered to be "flattering." The essence of "flattering" is ignorance. Its function is that it cannot purify sin karma. We all know that when repenting, we must disclose it, that is, confess in front of Vajrasattva, masters, or fellow daoists, and speak out our sins, so that we can purify our sins and save our mistakes. If you conceal your sins, you will never be able to repent and be pure and recover as before. The consequence is that you will never feel at ease, and will gradually become regretful, which will affect your life and make yourself unhappy and unhappy. Practitioners cannot even practice meditation because of meditation. It can be repaired without any pressure or entanglement, and the mind is completely relaxed. Therefore, "flattering" is also a very serious worry.
Saving means being stingy and reluctant to give. If it continues to develop, the result of not giving alms is to fall into the realm of hungry ghosts. Therefore, even if you don't have much money, you still have to give appropriately. Disaster relief, construction of charity hospitals, welfare schools, free nursing homes, etc., all belong to generosity.
The result of pride is that you cannot practice with peace of mind, and there will be no compassion. According to the "Four Hundred Opinions of Madhyamaka", arrogant people often think that they are arrogant and cannot see the suffering of others at all. Impetuous, ostentatious, vain and unreal.
The difference between pride and arrogance is that arrogance and arrogance are self-righteous in comparison with others. The place of pride is just one's own money, fame, status, etc. It's not a result of comparison, but I just feel that I'm great, it's just pride. Proud people always think that there is no need to learn from others, and they don’t feel the pain of reincarnation. They are just obsessed with the little happiness in front of them, so they don’t renounce; they don’t feel the pain of others, so they don’t have compassion. A true spiritual practitioner must never be proud.
Although you can learn Buddhism by wearing famous brands and driving famous cars, you will be proud if you pursue famous brands too much, are too vain, and love to show off. As Buddhists, it is best not to buy famous brands. On the one hand, there is no need to spend so much money. On the other hand, it is prone to pride and slowness. This is not worth the loss.
13, do not believe
Not believing in cause and effect, not believing in reincarnation, not believing in the Four Noble Truths, not believing in the merits of the Three Jewels, and not believing in the pain of reincarnation, all are called unbelief. Not having faith in itself is also an annoyance. Its essence is ignorance, ignorance, and ignorance. Many people only believe in the material cause and effect that they can see, but do not believe in the invisible cause and effect of good and evil. But this kind of disbelief is not unbelief after reaching a conclusion through research, but stubborn unbelief. Even if there are some reasons and evidences for the existence of reincarnation and causation, some people are still unwilling to believe it. These are all manifestations of deep karma and escape from reality. But no matter how to escape, it is useless. When you should face it, you still need to face it, whether you believe or accept it or not, because this is not formulated by Buddha Shakyamuni, but a natural law, which is not subject to human will.
Not believing in cause and effect is very scary. Because unbelief in cause and effect means that there is no self-discipline. All behaviors require laws or other punishments to be artificially controlled. As long as they are not known, any evil behavior such as killing, stealing and arrogant can be done. Although these people say that they are not afraid of the sky and the earth, they are actually very fragile in their hearts. The so-called "not afraid of the heavens and not afraid of the earth" means not to be afraid of causes, not to create karma, but the consequences are still very afraid-fear of death, fear of illness, fear of no one to take care of when old, fear of no money, so go to corruption and go. Fraud, to do all kinds of bad things, which inspires more pain.
Practitioners dare not say that they are not afraid of the sky, because they are afraid of cause and effect, and be cautious in their words and deeds, but their hearts are stronger. Facing pain, they will not have much panic and complain. Regardless of any era, any group, any society, it is a good thing to have faith, and no faith is very dangerous. Therefore, it is very important to understand the cycle of life and the law of cause and effect. Only after understanding, can we know how to think, we can plan ahead, and make some preparations for the afterlife in advance to avoid future pain.
Laziness is the main factor that prevents oneself from going forward but only going backwards. There are two types of slack, one is greedy-sleepy, gluttonous, playful, etc.; the other is not wanting to learn, unwilling to practice, and so on. Of course, people who are greedy, playful, and sleepy are naturally people who don't like learning and have no pursuit. As long as there is slack, you will not be diligent. When I am meditating in Wensi, I also hope that the meditation will end soon, so that I can drink tea, watch TV, play games, sleep, etc., so Wensixiu will definitely not make progress.
Laziness not only affects spiritual practice, but also affects careers in the world. For example, if the boss and employees of a company are slack, the company will definitely not develop.
Laziness is also a kind of thought or emotion. Buddhism is very opposed to laziness, because laziness is opposite to the diligence in the six degrees. The reason why the diligence in the sixth degree is placed in the middle, the front is generosity, precepts, and endurance, and the back is meditation and wisdom. It is because diligence has a driving effect on both the front and the back, and it is the driving force that is needed for both front and rear, just like the car’s. The engine is the same.
Life is short, and most people have passed half of their lives, and there is not much time left. If you still slack in this short life, how can you get rid of the suffering and get beyond the Three Realms? Therefore, we must get rid of slack.
How to deal with slack? First of all, we must know the pain of reincarnation, so that the desire for liberation can arise in the heart. Just like a person who is about to fall into a cliff, if he knows that he will definitely fall to death if he falls, then he will definitely struggle up; if he feels that the cliff is not terrible at all, then he will be fearless, slack and procrastinate.
Relaxation is the state of hearing, thinking, cultivating and other good things that should be done, not controlling the troubles and karma that should be controlled, not paying attention to all aspects of body, mouth and mind, being casual, having no pursuit, and living a day counts as a day.
The Buddha believes that letting go is the root of all troubles such as greed, anger, ignorance and so on. Not only will the unrestrained person never achieve it, but the original merits of hearing, thinking and practicing will gradually decrease, but greed, hatred and delusion will increase day by day.
Of course, if the pressure of work, life and Wen Sixiu is too great and you feel that you can’t bear it, you still have to travel or relax and take a break at home. In a round of diligence.
There is a procrastination disorder now. Psychologists think it is a kind of mental illness. Buddha Shakyamuni thinks it is a kind of negative emotions, and it is the troubles. In fact, although there are some objective factors for the delay, it is mainly the fault of the person concerned. Through psychological training, it can be adjusted, controlled, or even cut off and eliminated.
Laziness in work requires bosses and leaders to restrain us; but laziness in practice depends entirely on self-consciousness. If there is no self-discipline, there has been no progress in practice, and the additional practice will never be completed, you may never hear the formal and specific practice of Tantra. Even if I listened to it, it was useless. If renunciation and bodhicitta are not cultivated, no matter how long you practice Dzogchen and Mahamudra, it will not be effective. In the end, you will have to come back and start from scratch.
In addition to self-condemnation, the better way to control liberation is to repair the impermanence of life, the pain of reincarnation, and so on.
Some people will say: Reincarnation is not painful. My family is very harmonious, my income is very high and stable. I have bought all the medical and endowment insurance, car, house, savings, and good health. Why should I go? Practice? These are all manifestations of narrow vision and short-sightedness, only seeing a little bit of interest in front of him, lacking foresight, and seeing no place in the afterlife, let alone the light of liberation. It's like people standing on the earth can't see that the earth is spherical at all. Because the height of the location is not enough, it limits our vision and wisdom.
Losing mindfulness means losing mindfulness. What is mindfulness? For example, when cultivating impermanence, the thought of impermanence is very clear and the effect is very good. The object of the practice is always obvious and clear in the heart. This is called righteous thoughts.
For example, we often listened to and practiced together with our seniors. In addition to meditating and doing homework, what we often think about in real life is also the renunciation, bodhicitta, compassion and so on in Buddhism. Once you leave the circle of studying Buddhism, renunciation, bodhicitta, emptiness, etc. will gradually fade away, and your worries will gradually increase. This is called loss of mindfulness.
The so-called right knowledge refers to knowing clearly what one should and should not do through observation. Unrighteous knowledge means not thinking or observing at all when doing things, casually, foolishly and blindly. This will inevitably lead to bad consequences, resulting in greed, hatred and other troubles, and evil karma such as killing, theft, and prostitution. Ignorance is not only the source of worries, it is also one of the four factors for violating the precepts. For example, if you clearly received the stolen vows in the layman's vows, but wanted to evade taxes, without thinking and observing, you ended up breaking the vows. This is the result of unjust knowledge. Not only the Dharma, but even if you do worldly things, you also need to observe and make decisions. This is very important.
Drowsy and confused. For example, if you listen to the Fa or meditate for less than three to five minutes, you fall asleep, or you are in a state of being half-asleep and in a daze. After two or three hours, nothing is heard, and the practice has no effect. Confusion, blurred thinking. Drowsiness is also a state of mind. Drowsiness and drowsiness are the main violations of meditation.
19, drop off
Falling off is also a kind of chaos. For example, when practicing meditation, you always think of things that you think are beautiful, such as eating, traveling, playing, etc. The more you think about it, the more you get excited, and the heart cannot calm down, and the meditation has no effect.
The scope of the disorder is very wide. The eyes, ears, nose, tongue and body are always receiving external information. The various troubles, coupled with eating, drinking, playing and sleeping, are all scattered. When there is chaos, not only is it impossible to meditate, but also to hear and think. According to Buddhist standards, the lifestyle of modern people is disorganized and impetuous. They enjoy watching TV, shopping, etc. They cannot be quiet in one place for more than half an hour, unless they are in a daze. In this way, there is less and less real value inside. You should know that any valuable inspiration, magical powers and wisdom are discovered in a quiet state, including quite a few scientific inventions.
An impetuous life not only fails to give birth to wisdom, but also leads to an empty heart. Excessive dependence on the outside, unwilling to develop the potential functions of the inner spirit, let alone becoming a Buddha, even the achievements of Confucianism, Taoism, scientists, and philosophers are impossible to achieve.
There is a popular saying now: "I am so poor that only money is left!" That's too right! If there is only money without a rich inner world, it is really a symbol of poverty. We used to believe that, regardless of whether there is any merit in the world, as long as there is no money, they are poor. But this is not the case. Being rich is only part of the rich. If you lack other things, you are also poor to some extent. I think this should be the new definition of the poor in the 21st century. Buddha Shakyamuni long ago I have already said that money cannot make us happy, let alone liberate us. The result of emptiness is depression, loneliness, and suicide, all of which are the sequelae of chaos.
Ten basic defilements, plus twenty additional defilements, make a total of thirty types of defilements.
These thirty kinds of worries are all negative or destructive emotions. No matter whether they are in the realm of the world or the realm of the world, there should be no such worries, at least they should not be excessive. If you have these emotions, not only will you not be liberated, but you will also not be able to live a better life in the world.
(3) The difference between similar troubles
1. The difference between overwhelming and flattering: flattering is to conceal one's fault directly. For example, when a person commits some subtle precepts, the brother next to him persuades him to repent, but he refuses to admit it, saying that he has not violated the precepts and does not need to repent, etc. The act of concealing the fault directly is called flattery. Recovering is also concealing one's own faults, but this concealment is because of fear of fame, property, etc. It uses various methods to quibble and indirectly conceals one's sin karma.
2. The difference between distraction and distraction: Although they are all scattered outwards, the scope of distraction is very wide. Distraction is only a part of disorganization, and it is just that the consciousness is distracted during meditation.
The troubles are briefly introduced. If you want to know more about it, you have to learn the "Kusha" of Hinayana Buddhism and the "Abhidhamma" of Mahayana Buddhism. Both works have Chinese versions in the "Tripakaya". In addition, some related contents are also discussed in "On the Way" and "Going Forward to the Great Perfection: The Words and Teachings of Master Samantabhadra".
Mahayana Buddhism believes that as long as there is bodhicitta and emptiness is realized, the 30 defilements are not terrible, and they can all be turned into Taoism. But in fact, if you have enlightened emptiness and bodhicitta, the thirty defilements are no longer real defilements, but only nominal defilements. Tantra even believes that for enlightened people, all 30 worries are the wisdom of the Buddha.
But for us, worries are not yet the wisdom of the Buddha. Only by cultivating with our feet on the ground and step by step can we reach this state . Those who use tantra as an excuse, do not pay attention to the choice of cause and effect, and blatantly kill the thief and adultery, are the most opposed to tantra. This is refuted in both "Big Huanhuanet" and "Anu Yoga".
The above content is all about human psychological phenomena, and there are no dogmatic things in it. We should learn to recognize the defilements first, and further overthrow them. Defilements are half of the reincarnation factor; the other half is the karma generated on the basis of defilements.
——Excerpt from Khenpo Luo Zhu of Cicheng "Light of the Lantern of Wisdom"