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Image de 我们能够成佛吗? (中英文) Can We Become Buddha?

我们能够成佛吗? (中英文) Can We Become Buddha?

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All sentient beings have Buddha Nature, obscured by our cravings and defilements, but ultimately, with compassion, practice, meditation, and renunciation, we can emerge from the filth like the perfect lotus from the mud.
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Can We Become Buddha?

我们能够成佛吗? 

All Buddhas have the ten epithets. This means that all Buddhas have perfected their wisdom and virtues and have attained the ultimate enlightenment. To make this happen, however, Buddhist followers must take refuge in the Triple Gems and must make the Four Great Vows that mark their initiation into the bodhisattva path and indicate their continuing aspiration to seek Buddhahood.

每一尊佛都是已经圆满成就了祂们的无上智慧修行,而获得佛陀专有的十种称号。然而,佛教修行人要能够在未来究竟成佛,首先我们得皈依三宝成为佛弟子,并且还要发四弘誓愿——表示有意愿开始修行菩萨道,同时继续依着佛陀的教导法门,逐渐一步一步落实迈向成佛的大愿。因为,只有依照佛陀教导的方法,才能够成佛。


The Four Great Vows are the following: (1) however innumerable sentient beings may be, I vow to save them all; (2) however inexhaustible afflictions may be, I vow to eradicate them all; (3) however immeasurable the teachings may be, I vow to study them all; and (4) however difficult the unsurpassed  Buddhahood Path may be, I vow to complete it. When we have wholeheartedly taken these vows, our thoughts of them will constantly strengthen our conviction to attain Buddhahood throughout the predetermined 52 cultivation stages, regardless of the obstacles that may appear on our way. One cannot achieve Buddhahood without going through all these cultivation stages and without accumulating merits and wisdom.

佛法中的三宝指的是:佛宝——也就是我们常常说的佛陀、法宝——也就是佛陀教导的佛法以及僧宝。那什么是四弘誓愿呢?四弘誓愿指的是:佛弟子发起菩提心,愿意去学习佛陀,并像佛陀一样能够利益广大的有情众生。四弘誓愿的内容如下 (1) 众生无边誓愿度;(2) 烦恼无尽誓愿断;(3) 法门无量誓愿学;(4) 佛道无上誓愿成。当我们在佛前全心全意的开口发下这些誓愿时,就能承蒙佛菩萨的加持力,让我们内心深处对这些誓言的信念,不断的加强,同时在修学佛道的52个阶位中,保有毅力、勇气及信心,克服可能出现的任何障碍。然而在修行过程中,除了佛法智慧,还得继续提升每个层次所需要的基本福德,就如同展翅高飞的鸟儿,必须具备丰实平衡的双翼,才能上下翱翔自如。修学成佛之道也是一样,必须同时具有福德与智慧的支撑,才能福慧圆满,完成菩萨道的修行,而能够最终得以成佛。


All Buddhas are equal as they all hold the following ten epithets: “the Tathāgata; the Worthy of Respect; the Enlightened; the Perfected in Wisdom and Conduct; the Well Departed; the Understander of the Secular World; the Unsurpassed; the Tamer; the Teacher of Gods and Men; and Buddha (bhagavān), the World-Honored One” Yogacarabhumi-sastra, Vol. 38. These are called the ten epithets of the Buddha, each representing a magnificent aspect of the Buddha’s mundane and supramundane wisdom, virtues, and inconceivable powers. One who fully possesses these ten virtues and wisdom powers is called Buddha.

十方一切诸佛,都是平等平等的 , 经历过52 阶位的修行,圆满成就佛地的福德与智慧,故又称为“福慧两足尊”。因此诸佛都同样具有以下的十种名号:如来、应供、正遍知、明行足、善逝、世间解、无上士、调御丈夫、天人师、佛、世尊(薄伽梵)。显然,每一种尊称都有其应该具备的智慧功德,也只有完全具备这十种功德和智慧力量的修行者才能被称为佛。因此,经典中在叙述某一尊佛的时候,常常都会将佛陀十号一一列举出来,藉以强调成佛者,必然都具备这十种功德力与智慧力。

The Buddha passed down his teachings to guide his disciples toward attaining Buddhahood through the predetermined 52 cultivation stages. Given that all sentient beings have different capacities, the Buddha’s teaching methods make use of expedient means, all of them adapted to each individual’s capacities. First, the Buddha taught the Five Precepts and the Ten Virtues for his disciples to uphold moral integrity and ethics. In addition, we know that doing good and virtuous deeds will also facilitate our Buddhist cultivation path or even enable us to be reborn in the heavenly realm as celestial beings with longevity in the future. Thus, after learning the Buddhist teachings of wholesome dharma related to the human and heavenly realm, the disciples will know how to live best as humans in their current life to ensure rebirth into a better human state or rebirth as celestial beings in the future. Thus, the 52 cultivation stages are our guiding map for becoming a Buddha. With this map, along with our overall understanding of the prajna wisdom, merits, and virtues of the Buddha, we can build up our confidence in attaining Buddhahood.

我们得依照佛陀所教导的佛法要旨(法宝)而行,由于这些指导内容,都是佛陀亲自经历的修行过程,架构为 52个不同的阶位,从最浅显易懂的人伦五常、人天善法、解脱道、般若、唯识种智等方广智慧之学,逐渐深广的次第铺陈,让佛弟子们随着佛陀的脚步,也能够修行成佛。由于所有众生都有各自过去世种种不同的因缘业力,依着心性、福德、慧力之不同,佛陀的教学方法自然也采用了许多方便善巧的引导。

首先,佛陀为弟子们传授了五戒和十善,作为可以保有人身而继续当人类的道德操守和伦理,让我们能维持住“人格”,可以世世保有人身,不会堕落三恶道,否则不幸沦落成畜生、或者下地狱,久久都无法具有人类的智慧,更遑论要修行成佛。此外,持守五戒和十善,至少还能够有福德转生到天界,成为长寿的天人,享受天福。因此,选择作菩萨,修行成佛之道的52个阶位,这可譬喻为我们成佛的宝藏指引图。我们得要有因缘,遇到真善知识,学习了解这张宝藏指引图的明确内容,再加上我们对佛菩萨的坚定信念,依着善知识的指导而能获得般若智慧,持续照着经典的教导内容,如说修行、培植福德与功德,也更能时时确认自己目前的修行阶位,能够对佛法有整体的理解,我们自然就能建立起成佛的信心,佛弟子们肯定能踏实的拾级而上。

According to the teachings of Yogacarabhumi-sastra, wisdom can be categorized into two types: mundane wisdom and transmundane wisdom. Mundane wisdom belongs to the open-learning concept, similar to humans being “students” since birth and acquiring various experiences and knowledge to make a living or to survive during their current life. Transmundane wisdom, on the other hand, denotes liberation from the three realms and is a uniquely Buddhist wisdom. The term liberation suggests that a sentient being can step out of the stream of transmigration. In other words, Buddhist transmundane wisdom refers to the choice of experiencing the path to liberation and the path to Buddhahood.

根据弥勒菩萨《瑜伽师地论》的教义, 佛法中将智慧大略划分为两类:世间智和出世间智。

“世间智”属于开放性学习,也就是我们从出生以后,当“学生”接受这一期生命生存所需要的诸种学习。从浑然无知逐渐由下往上充实世间智慧、体验开展。另一方面,“出世间智”是指能够有解脱于三界的智慧,这属于佛教专有的智慧。同时,佛法中所称呼的名相,都有其特定的意涵。比方“解脱”一词,是代表有情众生可以解脱于三界的生死流转,而不再受业力的牵引所束缚。换句话说,佛教的“出世间智”是指具有解脱生死(二乘修行者)乃至成佛(大乘佛菩提道)的智慧,也就是佛陀施设的52阶位,让佛子们「学佛」,从解脱道开始学习乃至最终成就佛道。


The teachings on the path to liberation are about how to transcend samsara, leaving the three realms of existence behind and attaining nirvana. On the other hand, the path to Buddhahood is about initially attaining awakening to the true Self (aka personal realization of the existence of the true Self, the origin of the dharma realm). In Buddhist terms, it is stepping across the threshold to gain prajna wisdom, enabling bodhisattvas to understand the true meaning of the Mahāprajñāpāramita-sūtra.

佛法中的解脱道,是先教导众生如何超越三界生死的法门,总共有四个果位。四果阿罗汉,方便称为证得涅槃。而修行成佛之道,得先具有菩萨心性,再加上基础的福德与智慧,然后修行六度波罗蜜,获得善知识的指导,于时节因缘成熟时而能亲证真实心 – 法界的本源。换言之,也就是禅宗所说的开悟明心,跨过成佛之道的第一座门槛,获得般若智慧,使大乘菩萨们能够理解般若诸经的真正含义。

According to the Buddha, all sentient beings innately have a Buddha nature (reality suchness) and can become a Buddha through the sequential and persistent cultivation based on their Buddha nature. Helping others is a way of cultivating our merits and virtues, which will enhance our wisdom in dealing with all matters.

释迦佛陀出现人间的一大因缘,就是来宣说每一位有情众生都本具有成佛的本质 ——真实如来藏,并可依此次第修行而成就佛道。在三大阿僧祇劫长时间的修行过程,我们广泛地与众生结善缘、极力帮助他人,也是培养我们成佛所需具备的功德与福德的一种方式,同时也提高我们处理世间一切事务的善巧智慧。

In light of the foregoing, attaining Buddhahood denotes the process of perfecting two different fields; that is, bodhisattvas can extensively benefit others outwardly and at the same time experience and enhance their prajna wisdom by reflecting on and changing their negative qualities in their thoughts and behaviors. This way, the adverse habitual seeds stored in their Buddha nature can be purified, and they can thus slowly but surely completely traverse the cultivation path toward Buddhahood. After fully going through the predetermined 52 cultivation stages and obtaining the perfect wisdom of a Buddha, we will then be able to largely benefit all beings, like a Buddha, while abiding by the state of nirvana. We can fulfill the Four Great Vows we initially made as Buddhists.

综上所述,修行成佛的过程,是指需要逐渐圆满两个不同的领域。也就是说,对外而言,菩萨得广泛地利益他人;对自己而言,得同时通过反思和改变自己的身口意行,转依于如来藏的清净体性,逐渐消除性障,进而体验和提升自己的般若智慧。这样一来,储存在如来藏中的不良习气种子就能渐渐转净,稳固、坚定地走完通往成佛的修行之路。若能依次圆满52个阶位的修行并获得佛陀圆满的智慧后,我们就能像佛陀一样利益无量的众生。也可以实现我们最初作为佛弟子所发的四弘誓愿。